5G Technology 3GPP New Radio & 5G Rates - GeekyNotes

5G Technology 3GPP New Radio & More - GeekyNotes

5G radio represents a major step in mobile network capabilities. Up to now, mobile networks have mainly provided connectivity for smartphones, tablets, and laptops for consumers. 

5G will take the traditional mobile broadband to the extreme in terms of data rates, capacity, and availability. In addition, 5G will enable new services including
industrial Internet of Things (IoT) connectivity and critical communication. 
5G targets are set very high with data rates up to 20 Gbps and capacity increases of up to 1000 times with flexible platforms for device connectivity, ultra-low latency, and high reliability. A number of new use cases and applications can be run on top of 5G mobile networks.

It is expected that 5G can fundamentally impact all sections of society by improving
efficiency, productivity, and safety. 4G networks were designed and developed 10 years ago, mainly by telecom operators and vendors for the smartphone use case. Today, other parties, including different industries and communities, are taking a lot of interest in 5G networks; they want to understand 5G capabilities and take full advantage of 5G
networks. 4G was about connecting people. 5G is about connecting everything.

Evolution Path from LTE to 5G

A part of 5G capabilities can be provided on top of 4G networks with 4.5G, 4.5G Pro, and
4.9G enhancements, also known as LTE-Advanced Pro. 4.5G was commercially available
in 2016 with support for 600 Mbps peak rates. 4.5G brings also the first set of IoT opti-mization and public safety capabilities to LTE networks. 4.5G Pro supports 1 Gbps with carrier aggregation and 4×4 MIMO. LTE evolution can coexist on the same frequency
with legacy LTE devices, which makes the LTE evolution a smooth step toward 5G. LTE evolution can complement 5G, especially in the early phase, when 5G coverage is stilll limited shows the high-level evolution path from 4G LTE toward 5G.

Summary -

5G is not only about a new radio or new architecture or new core but about a number of
new use cases. Many sections of society, including different industries and cities, have
evinced much interest in 5G networks, so there is a pressing need to understand 5G
capabilities and push 5G availability. 5G is about connecting everything in the future,
which will weave 5G much more tightly into the fabric of our society and keep it running,
in contrast to earlier generations of the technology, which focused on mobile broadband
use case. The very high targets of 5G networks necessitate new technologies and new
deployment models for implementation in live networks. It is expected that 5G com-
bined with cloud and artificial intelligence can fundamentally impact society in terms of
improving efficiency, productivity, and safety. 5G will first come with greatly improved
mobile broadband capabilities operating together with LTE, and then move to provide
wider selection of new use cases addressing new market segments with stand-alone 5G
operation. Read the following chapters to understand more about how 5G works, what
5G can do to answer your needs, and where 5G will evolve next.

5G Data Rates -

With 5G, the supported data rate by the UE is not dependent on a particular UE category,
but rather it is dependent on the supported frequency band, at least in Release 15. For
example, with the 3.5 GHz band, the UE supports the following: 

• 100 MHz bandwidth
• Four receiver antennas
• 256-QAM modulation (downlink)

These basically define the UE-supported data rate to be on the order of 2 Gbps. It is
likely that in a later phase new UE types will be defined (for example, for IoT use cases)

which will support much lower data rates.These are also the minimum values; there may
be UEs that could support even more antennas and thus be capable of an even higher
data rate.

With low frequency bands, such as 600 or 700 MHz, the UE is required to support only two receiver antennas, and thus the resulting data rates are naturally lower.
With the bands in the range 24–29 GHz, the minimum UE-supported bandwidth is 200 MHz; thus, the resulting data rate with 4-stream MIMO would be on the order
of 4 Gbps. However, the expected number of diversity streams is less, typically 2, so the higher data rates are created by using a larger bandwidth instead of using 2-stream MIMO. With an expected allocation on the order of up to 800 or even 1000 MHz per
operator, per-UE data rates on the order of 4–5 Gbps could be achieved (with multiple
200 or 400 MHz carriers).
When calculating the achievable data rate, the uplink/downlink configuration will also have an impact in the case of TDD deployment. For a configuration with a large downlink allocation, a higher peak downlink data rate is naturally achieved.

Table 6.18 presents an example data rate calculation that is valid for a Release 15 UE supporting the 3.5 GHz frequency band (Band n78) as well as an example with the 28 GHz band. 

5G Radio Protocols -

The Long-Term Evolution (LTE) radio protocols were primarily designed for the provision of PS services through a flat architecture. They were a major improvement over the previous generations, eliminating the complexity inherent in the support of
circuit-switched (CS) services and in a convoluted architecture. Many of the original principles of LTE remained untouched since Release 8 and have proved to be a solid
baseline for over a decade. 

Thus, in the early days of 5G standardization, it was agreed
to use the LTE radio protocols as a baseline for 5G and to enhance them for the support of very high data rates with low latency, dynamic spectrum usage, and flexible Quality
of Service (QoS).

This chapter describes the 5G radio protocols, with a focus on the modifications and enhancements brought to the LTE baseline. Unless otherwise mentioned, it can be assumed that the descriptions apply to both 5G with dual connectivity with LTE
toward Evolved Packet Core (EPC) (non-standalone), and 5G with connection to 5GC

Network Density -

The maximum achievable network capacity is defined by the spectrum resources and by
the network density. Even if spectrum resources are great, the network capacity remains
low if the network density is low. Network density refers here to the number of base stations compared to the population. There are major differences between countries. illustrates the approximate macro network densities in terms of base stations per 10 000 persons. The calculation includes the combined number of base stations of all operators divided by the country’s popu-lation. The highest network densities are found in the Nordic countries, and in Japan,
Korea, and China. The medium network densities can be found in the European and North American networks. The lowest densities are typical in Latin America, Africa,
and India. When we combine the spectrum resources and site densities together, we
can conclude that there are likely challenges with network capacity in the United States,
India, and in many developing countries in Asia and in Africa.

Mobile Data Traffic Growth -

Mobile Data Volume -

Early technology visions for the year 2020 indicated that the expected mobile traffic may
be very high – even 1 GB/person/day. Such high mobile data traffic was considered a
very bold target 10 years ago, but the growth was even higher in many networks. Mobile
data traffic exceeded 1 GB/person/day in some countries already in 2018 and will exceed
it in many countries by 2020. Figure 8.5 shows the mobile data usage per person per day in Finland from 2008 until 2018.The usage exceeded 1 GB per day during 2018.The total
growth in 10 years has been 300×, corresponding to a nearly 80% annual growth rate on
average. Mobile data usage is nearly as high in Taiwan and Saudi Arabia as well. The very
high data usage requires two conditions: first, the networks need to have good quality in
terms of coverage and capacity, and second, the data pricing needs to be flat rate. When
these conditions are fulfilled, the customers tend to use lot of LTE mobile data because
it is so convenient.

The total global mobile data during 2018 was approximately 600 petabytes (PB) per day, that is 600 000 terabytes (TB) or 600 000 000 gigabytes (GB). Most of that data consumption is created in China, India, the United States, and Europe. Figure 8.6 illus-
trates the estimated total mobile data usage per day in those four leading regions. The United States was the leading market in terms of mobile data until 2016, while all four areas had roughly similar data volumes during 2017. The fast growth in China and India
made those countries larger in terms of data usage during 2018 simply because of the very large population in both countries. The fast data growth in India was enabled by the launch of a new LTE network in 2016 combined with attractive data pricing.

5G Capacity at Mid-Band -

The combination of larger bandwidth and beamforming antenna results in a substantial
increase in user data rates and capacity. Therefore, 5G deployment with massive MIMO
using 100 MHz bandwidth at 2.5/3.5 GHz can boost mobile broadband performance
compared to the LTE network. The capacity increase is so large that 5G can potentially
also be used for fixed wireless access in addition to mobile broadband.The fixed wireless
users tend to consume a lot more capacity than mobile users: mobile customers use typically 10–20 GB/month, while fixed wireless customers use 100–200 GB/month. 5G may provide enough capacity to satisfy even the needs of fixed wireless access. 
illustrates the typical user data rate and sector capacity for LTE with 2 × 2 MIMO and
20+20 MHz spectrum compared to 5G with massive MIMO and 100 MHz spectrum.

The 5G spectral efficiency is assumed to be 10 bps/Hz with 80% of the frame allocated
for the downlink, which gives a sector capacity of 800 Mbps. A typical LTE network in
urban area uses 20+20 MHz aggregation. 5G can increase network capacity by a factor
of 10 while reusing the same base station sites.

Network Energy Efficiency - 

There is a clear motivation for addressing energy efficiency in 5G networks:

we want to keep the energy consumption of the mobile network on the current level, or even lower it, while data traffic keeps increasing and number of base stations keeps increasing. That means up to 1000 times more traffic with similar energy consumption. The network
energy efficiency was not a target when 3G or 4G technologies were defined; the focus was only on the device power efficiency. The thinking was that the network energy efficiency is just an implementation topic. As the implementation technology becomes more efficient, the energy efficiency is improved. But this evolution is too slow com-
pared to the traffic increase. 

There 5G networks need to include more efficient system-level solutions to reduce the power consumption. The focus has been especially on the energy efficiency during low loading. The learning from LTE networks has been
that the average network level utilization is typically 10–25% over 24/7 for the whole network. 

The relatively low utilization can be explained by the fact that the traffic is
unequally distributed over a 24-hour period and unequally distributed over the geographical area. The loading is low in the network during the night time, and there are number of cells in the network that are needed for coverage and carry only low traffic volumes. All this means that base stations send nothing 75–90% of the time even in high-loaded networks. The LTE base station power consumption is relatively high also during the idle times because of the transmission of common reference symbols.

5G does not have common reference symbols, and 5G can better utilize power sav-
ing techniques in the base station. See Chapter 3 for more details on the technology components. 

If the low load power consumption can be minimized with 5G, there is a major potential for improving the network-level energy efficiency. Figure 10.63 shows the share of off-time in the base station transmission without any data transmission.

The off-time share varies between 91% and 99% depending on the size of Synchronization Signal Block (SSB) transmission. It shows that the power consumption could
theoretically be more than 90% lower for an idle base station compared to full power

Watch Short Video For More Info.

Internet of Things Optimization -

Internet of Things (IoT) refers to the interconnection and autonomous exchange of data
between devices which are machines or parts of machines, also called sensors and con-
trols. IoT can also be described as a network of physical objects that are connected to the Internet.

The future connected world is expected to have tens of billions of IoT devices.

This chapter focuses on the cellular IoT technologies. IoT enables a huge number of use
cases in the areas of homes and consumers, industries, utilities and environment, logistics and connected cars. 

smart metering for the collection of electricity or gas meter readings, smart grid for better utilization of power networks, traffic telematics for improved road efficiency and safety, industry , smart homes for handy control of lighting  and heating, health applications for collecting data from the body, environmental measurements, smart cities for higher efficiency and safety, object tracking and agricultural
applications, and preventive maintenance and smart monitoring for safety.

The target of IoT optimization is to create IoT modules that can be integrated into
billions of objects and provide wireless connectivity to the Internet. IoT optimization
targets can be summarized as follows:

• Long battery life: Smartphones need daily charging of batteries, but many IoT devices
must operate for very long times, often years, without charging. A good example is a fire alarm sensor sending data directly to a fire department. The battery change interval in such a device is a very important cost factor.The battery life should preferably be
as long as the device life time since changing battery can be difficult in hard-to-access locations. 
A long battery life would also enable completely new connected device applications. Many objects around us currently do not have a cord, but are battery operated or even work without a battery. These devices can also be brought into the network. The target of the cellular IoT connectivity is 10 years of battery operation
for simple daily connectivity.

• Low device cost: IoT connectivity will mostly serve users with a 10-fold lower revenue  compared to broadband subscriptions. To enable a positive business case for
cellular IoT, the total cost of ownership including the device must be extremely low.
The current industry target is for an IoT module cost of less than 5 USD.

• Low deployment cost:The network cost of IoT connectivity, including the initial Cap-
ital Expenditure (CAPEX) and annual Operating Expenditure (OPEX), must also be
kept to a minimum. Deploying IoT connectivity on top of existing cellular networks
can be accomplished by a simple, centrally pushed software upgrade, thus avoiding
any new hardware, site visits, and keeping CAPEX and OPEX to a minimum.

• Simple subscription management:The mEbedded Subscriber Identity Module (eSIM)
can be used to enable remote SIM provisioning of any mobile device. Remote provi-
sioning and eSIM are expected to be important for small IoT devices

• Full coverage: Enhanced coverage is important in many IoT applications. Simple
examples are smart meters, which are often in basements of buildings behind
concrete walls. Industrial applications such as elevators or conveyor belts can also
be located deep indoors. This requirement has driven the IoT community to look
for methods to increase coverage by tolerating lower signal strength and longer
latency than is required for other devices. The target for the IoT link budget is an
enhancement of 15–20 dB compared to Global System for Mobile communications

I believe that you will find this book enjoyable and useful in helping you to enhance
your understanding about the potential of 5G technology. I hope that we can witness
together a successful future for 5G technology during the next decade.

 Read more Here...

Everything you need to know about 5G.

What is 5g ? Wikipedia. 

Gearing up for 5G 

Thanks For Reading.

/* If you want to remove footer link visit http://shubhammali.cf/ here and contact me bruus */